Human brain overview for biotech and artificial intelligence development (part 2)
Pineal body is another term for pineal gland.
A pineal gland is a small, pinecone-shaped endocrine gland found near the centre of the brain that produces melatonin.
An endocrine gland is any of various glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood or lymph and not through a duct.
A gland is a specialized cell, group of cells, or organ of endothelial origin in the human or animal body that synthesizes a chemical substance, such as hormones or breast milk, and releases it, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
An organ is a larger part of an organism, composed of tissues that perform similar functions.
A hormone is any substance produced by one tissue and conveyed by the bloodstream to another to effect physiological activity.
Endothelial means of or pertaining to the endothelium.
Endothelium means a thin layer of flat epithelial cells that lines the heart, serous cavities, lymph vessels, and blood vessels.
Epithelial means of or pertaining to the epithelium.
An epithelium means a membranous tissue composed of one or more layers of cells which forms the covering of most internal and external surfaces of the body and its organs: internally including the lining of vessels and other small cavities, and externally being the skin.
Serous means containing, secreting, or resembling serum; watery; a fluid or discharge that is pale yellow and transparent, usually representing something of a benign nature. (This contrasts with the term sanguine, which means blood-tinged and usually harmful.)
A serum is the clear yellowish liquid obtained upon separating whole blood into its solid and liquid components after it has been allowed to clot. A serum also is a watery liquid from animal tissue, especially one that moistens the surface of serous membranes or that is exuded by such membranes when they become inflamed, such as in edema or a blister.
An inflammation is a condition of any part of the body, consisting of congestion of the blood vessels, with obstruction of the blood current, and growth of morbid tissue. It is manifested outwardly by redness and swelling, attended with heat and pain.
An edema is an excessive accumulation of serum in tissue spaces or a body cavity.
A blister is a small bubble between the layers of the skin that contains watery or bloody fluid and is caused by friction and pressure, burning, freezing, chemical irritation, disease or infection.
Lymph is a colourless, watery, coagulable bodily fluid which bathes the tissues and is carried by the lymphatic system into the bloodstream; it resembles blood plasma in containing white blood cells and especially lymphocytes but normally few red blood cells and no platelets.
A lymphatic system is, in mammals, including humans, a network of lymph vessels and lymph nodes that transport fluid, fats, proteins, and lymphocytes to the bloodstream as lymph, and remove microorganisms and other debris from tissues.
A lymph vessel is a thin-walled vessel that carries lymph through the lymphatic system.
A lymph node is each of the small oval bodies of the lymphatic system, distributed along the lymphatic vessels, that are clustered in the armpits, groin, neck, chest and abdomen. They act as filters, with an internal honeycomb of connective tissue filled with lymphocytes and macrophages that collect and destroy bacteria, viruses and foreign matter from lymph. When the body is fighting an infection, these lymphocytes multiply rapidly and produce a characteristic swelling of the lymph nodes.
A bloodstream is a flow of blood through the circulatory system of an animal.
A circulatory system is the parts of an animal body comprising the heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood, which circulate the blood around the body.
An artery is any of the muscular- and elastic-walled blood vessels forming part of the circulation system by which blood is conveyed away from the heart regardless of its oxygenation status.
I’ll continue in part 3.
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