Human brain overview for biotech and artificial intelligence development (part 4)
A duct is a pipe, tube or canal which carries gas or liquid from one place to another; in anatomy, a duct is a vessel for conveying lymph or glandular secretions such as tears or bile.
Glandular means pertaining to a gland or glands.
A natural killer cell is any cell that expresses cell surface receptors that deliver signals to either activate or inhibit a response as part of the innate immune system. Also known as large granular lymphocyte, NK, NK cell.
To express, in biochemistry, means to translate messenger RNA into protein, or to transcribe deoxyribonucleic acid into messenger RNA.
To transcribe, in biochemistry, means to cause DNA to undergo transcription.
Transcription, in genetics, means the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA.
DNA is the part of a living being that carries genetic information; in biochemistry, DNA is a biopolymer of deoxyribonucleic acid (a type of nucleic acid) that has four different chemical groups, called bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
A base, in biology and biochemistry, is a nucleotide’s nucleobase in the context of a DNA or RNA biopolymer.
Nucleotide, in biochemistry, is the monomer constituting DNA or RNA biopolymer molecules. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous heterocyclic base (or nucleobase), which can be either a double-ringed purine or a single-ringed pyrimidine; a five-carbon pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA); and a phosphate group.
Monomer, in chemistry, is a relatively small molecule which can be covalently bonded to other monomers to form a polymer.
Molecule, in chemistry, is the smallest particle of a specific element or compound that retains the chemical properties of that element or compound; two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Bond, in chemistry, is a link or force between neighbouring atoms in a molecule.
Covalently means using covalent bonds.
Covalent bond, in chemistry, is a type of chemical bond where two atoms are connected to each other by the sharing of two or more electrons.
A polymer is a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers.
Biopolymer, in biochemistry, is any macromolecule of a living organism that is formed from the polymerization of smaller entities; a polymer that occurs in a living organism or results from life.
A macromolecule, in chemistry and biochemistry, is a very large molecule, especially used in reference to large biological polymers (e.g. nucleic acids and proteins).
A nucleic acid in biochemistry and genetics is any acidic, chainlike biological macromolecule consisting of multiple repeat units of phosphoric acid, sugar and purine and pyrimidine bases; they are involved in the preservation, replication and expression of hereditary information in every living cell.
Acidic, in chemistry, means having a pH less than 7, or being sour, or having the strength to neutralize alkalis, or turning a litmus paper red.
pH, in chemistry, is measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution, equal to the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydronium ions in molars.
Acidity is the quality or state of being acid; sourness; tartness; sharpness to the taste.
Basicity, in chemistry, is the degree to which a substance is basic. Basicity, in chemistry, also means the number of replaceable hydrogen atoms in a molecule of an acid.
Hydrogen is the lightest chemical element (symbol H), with an atomic number of 1 and atomic weight of 1.00794.
Atomic number, in physics and chemistry, is the number of protons in an atom. Symbol: Z.
Atom, in chemistry and physics, is the smallest possible amount of matter which still retains its identity as a chemical element, now known to consist of a nucleus surrounded by electrons.
I’ll continue in part 5.
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