Chemical composition determination methods overview for human immortality biotech (part 2)

One of my key goals I pursue according to my plan in my book, The Future, is developing the human immortality biotech; I may never achieve that goal; but I encounter so many interesting challenges and solutions while pursuing that goal, I like pursuing it; I like forcing myself to expand my mind, and nothing expands my mind more than going after developing the human immortality biotech. Because of the way I am particularly wired genetically and cerebrally, I tremendously enjoy making myself really uncomfortable with really difficult intellectual challenges.

The human immortality biotech I envision is human body manufacturing and replacement technology.

Because I want to develop and commercialize a biotechnology that can manufacture and replace human body parts and the entire human body, I need to study, think about, and research biomolecules and biochemistry.

In the conventional precision manufacturing, you go down to the micron or micrometer level, one millionth of a meter. An object that is 30 micron wide can be seen with the naked human eye; a line that is 30 micron or 0.03 mm wide can be printed using the modern printing technology; human hair ranges from 17 to 181 micron or 0.017 to 0.181 mm. An object that is one micron or micrometer can be seen with optical microscope; so it’s fairly big, and fairly easy to see using an instrument. Because I do artificial intelligence, robot, and nuclear-fusion hardware development research according to my plan in my book, The Future, I often think about, and research, manufacturing materials at the micron level, which is very frequently done nowadays in AD 2022.

In biomanufacturing, you go down to the nanometer level, one billionth of a meter. Even an electron microscope has hard time seeing an object that is one nanometer long; in biomanufacturing, you deal with the smallest chemical matter, molecules and atoms. A typical protein is 3 to 6 nanometer in size, so it’s pretty small even for an electron microscope.

So, how do scientists determine the chemical composition of a molecule, such as protein and nucleobases?

Let’s go over the existing methods that scientists use to determine the chmical composition of a molecule.

One National Institutes of Health (NIH) article, titled “Size and Shape of Protein Molecules at the Nanometer Level Determined by Sedimentation, Gel Filtration, and Electron Microscopy”, by Harold P Erickson, discusses determining the size, shape, and molecular weight of single protein molecules and complexes at the nanometer level, using sedimentation and gel-filtration hydrodynamic techniques, and rotary shadowing and negative stain electron microscopy. In this audiovisual series, I’ll go over sedimentation and gel-filtration hydrodynamic techniques, and rotary shadowing and negative stain electron microscopy.

“Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition”, published in 2002, by Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al., talks about gel electrophoresis separating DNA molecules of different sizes; it talks about using the protein-analysis gel electrophoresis methods in accurately determining the length and purity of DNA molecules; it talks about using specially designed polyacrylamide gels to separate DNA molecules in different lengths, as small as a single nucleotide, for DNA fragments less than 500 nucleotides long; it talks about using much more porous gels formed by dilute solutions of agarose (a polysaccharide isolated from seaweed) for separating very large DNA molecules; it talks about labeling purified DNA molecules with radioisotopes or chemical markers in vitro; it talks about a DNA polymerase copying DNA with radioactive or chemically tagged nucleotides for labeling isolated DNA molecules, for nucleic acid hybridization reactions; it talks about using the bacteriophage enzyme polynucleotide kinase to transfer a single labeled phosphate from ATP to the end of each DNA chain; it talks about a gel-transfer hybridization method called Southern blotting; it talks about constructing a DNA library to isolate a specific gene; it talks about using DNA polymerase isolated from a thermophilic bacterium. In this audiovisual series, I’ll go over gel electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel, agarose and polysaccharide, radioisotopes, chemical markers, DNA polymerase, nucleic acid hybridization reaction, bacteriophage enzyme polynucleotide kinase, ATP, gel-transfer hybridization method, Southern blotting, DNA library, and thermophilic bacterium.

I’ll continue in part 3.

If you haven’t already, visit, and buy and read my book, titled The Future, to learn how I advance artificial intelligence, robotics, human immortality biotech, and mass-scale outer space humanity expansion tech.

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Allen Young

The transhumanistic Asian-American man who publicly promotes and advances AI, robotics, human body biotech, and mass-scale outer space tech.