Human brain overview for biotech and artificial intelligence development (part 15)

Let’s continue going over the basic knowledge that is required for fully understanding the human brain, so that we can advance human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence. Let’s rock!

IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry. IUPAC nomenclature is used for the naming of chemical compounds, based on their chemical composition and their structure. For example, one can deduce that 1-chloropropane has a chlorine atom on the first carbon in the 3-carbon propane chain. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature. There are two main areas: IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry (Red Book), and IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry (Blue Book).

n-Propyl chloride (also 1-propyl chloride or 1-chloropropane) is a colorless, flammable chemical compound. It has the chemical formula C3H7Cl and is prepared by reacting n-propyl alcohol with phosphorus trichloride in the presence of a zinc chloride catalyst.

Propan-1-ol (also propanol, n-propyl alcohol) is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH and sometimes represented as PrOH or n-PrOH. It is a colorless liquid and an isomer of 2-propanol. It is formed naturally in small amounts during many fermentation processes and used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical industry, mainly for resins and cellulose esters, and, sometimes, as a disinfecting agent.

A primary alcohol is an alcohol in which the hydroxy group is bonded to a primary carbon atom. It can also be defined as a molecule containing a “–CH2OH” group. In contrast, a secondary alcohol has a formula “–CHROH” and a tertiary alcohol has a formula “–CR2OH”, where “R” indicates a carbon-containing group. Examples of primary alcohols include ethanol and 1-butanol. Methanol is also generally regarded as a primary alcohol, including the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.

A primary carbon is a carbon atom which is bound to only one other carbon atom. It is thus at the end of a carbon chain. In case of an alkane, three hydrogen atoms are bound to a primary carbon (see the propane structural formula in the video). A hydrogen atom could also be replaced by a hydroxy group, which would make the molecule a primary alcohol.

In chemistry, catenation is the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain. A chain or a ring shape may be open if its ends are not bonded to each other (an open-chain compound), or closed if they are bonded in a ring (a cyclic compound). The words to catenate and catenation reflect the Latin root catena, “chain”.

In chemistry, an open-chain compound (also spelled as open chain compound) or acyclic compound is a compound with a linear structure, rather than a cyclic one.

A cyclic compound (or ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring. Rings may vary in size from three to many atoms, and include examples where all the atoms are carbon (i.e., are carbocycles), none of the atoms are carbon (inorganic cyclic compounds), or where both carbon and non-carbon atoms are present (heterocyclic compounds).

In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical trivial name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carbon–carbon bonds are single. Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2. The alkanes range in complexity from the simplest case of methane (CH4), where n = 1 (sometimes called the parent molecule), to arbitrarily large and complex molecules, like pentacontane (C50H102) or 6-ethyl-2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl) octane, an isomer of tetradecane (C14H30).

I’ll continue in part 16.

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Allen Young

The transhumanistic Asian-American man who publicly promotes and advances AI, robotics, human body biotech, and mass-scale outer space tech.