Biochemical analysis methods overview for biotech and artificial intelligence development (part 3)

Let’s continue going over the basic knowledge that is required for developing one or more ultra-low cost biochemical composition determination technologies, so that we can advance human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence. Let’s rock!

The Wikipedia article titled “DNA extraction”, talks about the tools, methods, and elements used in extracting DNA from a cell; it talks about polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), cell lysis, detergents, surfactants, protease, RNase, salt solution (saline), centrifugation, ethanol precipitation, ethanol, isopropanol, sodium acetate, phenol–chloroform extraction, toxic chemicals phenol and chloroform, minicolumn purification, adsorption, histone protein, sodium, ammonium acetate, phenol-chloroform, alkaline buffer, TE buffer, ultra-pure water, tris or tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane or tromethamine or THAM, EDTA, SDS (Sodium dodecyl sulfate), NaCl, MgCl2, organic extraction, chelex extraction, solid phase extraction, chemical solutions, washing steps, DNA transfer between multiple tubes, Chelex resin, vortexing and centrifuging, Chelex beads, supernatant, PCR-based analyses, RFLP analysis, spin-column-based extraction, silica, silica gel, silica beads, chaotropic salts, phosphate residues, ethanol, low-salt solutions, elution, solid-phase extraction commercial kits, protein precipitation, insoluble fraction, centrifugation, soluble fraction, Hirt DNA Extraction, extrachromosomal DNA, nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, viral episomes, diphenylamine (DPA) indicator, chemical hydrolysis of DNA, deoxyribose sugar, 2-deoxyribose, w-hydroxylevulinyl aldehyde, diphenylamine, blue-colored compound, spectrophotometer, standard curve of known DNA concentrations, restriction enzyme, agarose gel, ethidium bromide (EtBr), Southern blot, plant nuclei, Nuclear Isolation Buffer (NIB), plastid DNA, organelles, osmotic buffer, purified nuclei, genomic DNA, high-concentration CTAB precipitation, gDNA, high pH buffer dissolution, Boom method, DNA fingerprinting, DNA sequencing, DNA structure, Plasmid preparation, and SCODA DNA purification. I’ll talk about all of those topics.

I’ll talk about chemical composition, chemical element, chemical compound, chemical formula, empirical formula, and molecular formula as specifed in Wikipedia.

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) are the two most common methods used to determine the chemical composition of an alloy (or any metal). I’ll talk about those in this audiovisual series.

I’ll also talk about more methods for determining the chemical composition of an unknown substance; I’ll talk about Gas Chromatography (GC), Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), Ion Chromatography (IC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Dispersive Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for Crystallography, and Thermogravimetric Analysis / Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

Spectral and chromatographic data are used to confirm chemical identity and composition. Spectroscopy techniques, and chromatographic methods, are used to verify chemical composition. I’ll talk about spectroscopy techniques, and chromatographic methods.

Chemical residue trace analysis includes mass spectrometry, chromatography, and spectroscopy. I’ll talk about those.

To confirm the structure of mono-constituent substances, several spectroscopic methods are used in combination, in particular ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV/Vis), infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectroscopy (MS), and also chromatographic method such as HPLC or GC. I’ll talk about all of those.

For inorganic substances identification, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy with mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Ion chromatography is suitable for determination of anions and cations. I’ll talk about all of those.

I’ll continue in part 4.

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Allen Young

The transhumanistic Asian-American man who publicly promotes and advances AI, robotics, human body biotech, and mass-scale outer space tech.