Biochemical analysis methods overview for biotech and artificial intelligence development (part 4)
Let’s continue going over the basic knowledge that is required for developing one or more ultra-low cost biochemical composition determination technologies, so that we can advance human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence. Let’s rock!
Chromatographic methods, such as Gas Chromatography (GC) or High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) are used to confirm the purity of a substance. If and when appropriate, also other valid constituent separation techniques may be used. I’ll talk about all of those.
The European Union enacted the REACH Regulation, and published “Guidance for identification and naming of substances under REACH and CLP and with the Substance Identification Profile (SIP)”, for controlling Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC). Those are highly relevant to chemical composition analysis and determination. So, I’ll look into them and talk about them.
Acrylamide detection and testing can reach trace ppm levels and lower, using a wide range of analytical instrumentation including; Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). I’ll talk about all of those.
ppm stands for Parts per million. (10000 ppm = 1%).
State-of-the-art trace metal analysis instrumentation includes Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP), ICP-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), GC-ICP-MS, HPLCICP- MS, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEMEDX). I’ll talk about all of those.
California Proposition 65 is a California law, whose goals are to protect drinking water sources from toxic substances that cause cancer and birth defects and to reduce or eliminate exposures to those chemicals generally, such as consumer products, by requiring warnings in advance of those exposures. I’ll talk about the chemical analysis methods for detecting the toxic substances covered by California Proposition 65.
Chemical composition analysis can require the application of a combination of analytical methods in order to achieve a full picture of the chemical structures and concentrations of the components in a sample.
Contamination analysis and identification laboratory services use analytical techniques such as optical microscopy, electron microscopy (SEM, TEM and EDX), NMR and RAMAN spectroscopy, FTIR Microscopy and imaging, XRD analysis, GC-MS, and ICP-OES. I’ll talk about all of those.
Elemental impurity testing is done by ICP-OES and ICP-MS, in compliance with USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) Chapters <232> and < 233> (at usp.org), EP (2.4.20) and ICH Q3D. I’ll talk about all of those in detail.
Contamination analysis techniques include microscopy contamination analysis, such as optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDX Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy: EDS, EDX, or XEDS) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study particulate contaminants and fibre contaminants; contamination analysis techniques also include spectroscopy and microscope based techniques for determining chemical composition of contaminants, such as the use of SEM with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) as a first step to investigate residues or particles, which can yield elemental composition of the particle or area studied and can help determine if the contaminant is of organic or inorganic material; Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, optical microscopy and also ATR-FTIR spectroscopy can provide molecular composition information of organic materials, and help to identify unknowns. For trace metal contamination – if a suitable procedure is adopted – trace levels of metals can be detected using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) which provides a highly sensitive multi-element analytical tool. Contamination analysis techniques include Optical Microscopy, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM), Scanning Electron Microscopy ( SEM + cryo), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM + cryo), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (wet STEM), Contamination Analysis by Raman Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Microscopy, Hot-Stage Microscopy (up to 600C), Image Analysis and Particle Sizing, Contamination Analysis by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR), Contamination Analysis by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Contamination Analysis by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP). I’ll talk about all of those.
I’ll continue in part 5.
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