Let’s continue going over the basic knowledge that is required for developing one or more ultra-low cost biomolecule synthesis technologies, so that we can advance human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence. Let’s rock!
A reaction, in chemistry, is a transformation in which one or more substances is converted into another by combination or decomposition.
Gas, in chemistry, is matter in an intermediate state between liquid and plasma that can be contained only if it is fully surrounded by a solid (or in a bubble of liquid, or held together by gravitational pull); it can condense into a liquid, or can (rarely) become a solid directly by deposition.
To condense, in chemistry, is to transform from a gaseous state into a liquid state via condensation. To condense, in chemistry, is to be transformed from a gaseous state into a liquid state.
Condensation, in physics, is the conversion of a gas to a liquid. Condensation, in chemistry, is the reaction of two substances with the simultaneous loss of water or other small molecule.
Deposition, in chemistry, is the production of a thin film of material onto an existing surface. Deposition, in physics, is the transformation of a gas into a solid without an intermediate liquid phase (reverse of sublimation).
Sublimation, in chemistry, is the transition of a substance from the solid phase directly to the vapor state such that it does not pass through the intermediate liquid phase.
Alkene, in organic chemistry, is an unsaturated, aliphatic hydrocarbon with one or more carbon–carbon double bonds.
Aliphatic, in organic chemistry, of a class of organic compounds in which the carbon atoms are arranged in an open chain.
In esterification dehydration reaction, the classic example of a dehydration reaction is the Fischer esterification, which involves treating a carboxylic acid with an alcohol to give an ester. Often such reactions require the presence of a dehydrating agent, i.e. a substance that reacts with water.
In etherification dehydration reaction, two monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, can be joined together (to form saccharose) using dehydration synthesis. The new molecule, consisting of two monosaccharides, is called a disaccharide.
Monosaccharide, in biochemistry, is a simple sugar such as glucose, fructose or deoxyribose that has a single ring.
Glucose, in biochemistry, is a simple monosaccharide (sugar) with a molecular formula of C6H12O6; it is a principle source of energy for cellular metabolism.
Fructose, in biochemistry, is a monosaccharide ketose sugar, formula C6H12O6.
Ketose, biochemistry, is a saccharide containing a ketone functional group.
Ketone, in organic chemistry, is a homologous series of organic molecules whose functional group is an oxygen atom joined to a carbon atom—by a double bond—in a carbon-hydrogen based molecule.
Homologous, in chemistry, means belonging to a series of aliphatic organic compounds that differ only by the addition of a CH₂ group.
Saccharose, in biochemistry, is sugar, especially sucrose.
Sucrose, in biochemistry, is a disaccharide with formula C12H22O11, consisting of two simple sugars, glucose and fructose; normal culinary sugar.
Saccharide, in biochemistry, is the unit structure of carbohydrates, of general formula CnH2nOn. Either the simple sugars or polymers such as starch and cellulose. The saccharides exist in either a ring or short chain conformation, and typically contain five or six carbon atoms.
Carbohydrate, in organic chemistry and nutrition, is a sugar, starch, or cellulose that is a food source of energy for an animal or plant.
Starch is carbohydrates, as with grain and potato based foods. Starch is a widely diffused vegetable substance, found especially in seeds, bulbs and tubers, as extracted (e.g. from potatoes, corn, rice, etc.) in the form of a white, glistening, granular or powdery substance, without taste or smell, and giving a very peculiar creaking sound when rubbed between the fingers. It is used as a food, in the production of commercial grape sugar, for stiffening linen in laundries, in making paste, etc.
I’ll continue in part 5.
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