Biophotonic 3D microscope development for biotech and artificial intelligence development (part 5)
Let’s continue going over the basic knowledge required for developing whole dead human body 3D-scanner microscopy technology—for advancing human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence. Let’s rock!
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Humans at normal body temperature radiate chiefly at wavelengths around 10 μm (micrometers), which is in the near infrared range. On the boundary, the second near infrared light has the wavelength range of 1000 – 1700 nm or 1 – 1.7 μm, at the boundary between near ultraviolet and near infrared.
There is no universally accepted definition of the range of infrared radiation. Typically, it is taken to extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (nm) to 1 millimeter (mm). This range of wavelengths corresponds to a frequency range of approximately 430 THz down to 300 GHz. Beyond infrared is the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Increasingly, terahertz radiation is counted as part of the microwave band, not infrared, moving the band edge of infrared to 0.1 mm (3 THz).
Sunlight, at an effective temperature of 5,780 kelvins (5,510 °C, 9,940 °F), is composed of near-thermal-spectrum radiation that is slightly more than half infrared. At zenith, sunlight provides an irradiance of just over 1 kilowatt per square meter at sea level. Of this energy, 527 watts is infrared radiation, 445 watts is visible light, and 32 watts is ultraviolet radiation. Nearly all the infrared radiation in sunlight is near infrared, shorter than 4 micrometers.
Infrared radiation is generally considered to begin with wavelengths longer than visible by the human eye. However there is no hard wavelength limit to what is visible, as the eye’s sensitivity decreases rapidly but smoothly, for wavelengths exceeding about 700 nm. Therefore wavelengths just longer than that can be seen if they are sufficiently bright, though they may still be classified as infrared according to usual definitions. Light from a near-IR laser may thus appear dim red and can present a hazard since it may actually be quite bright. And even IR at wavelengths up to 1,050 nm from pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions.
Infrared sensor response division scheme. A scheme divides up the infrared band based on the response of various detectors.
Near-infrared: from 0.7 to 1.0 μm (from the approximate end of the response of the human eye to that of silicon).
Short-wave infrared: 1.0 to 3 μm (from the cut-off of silicon to that of the MWIR atmospheric window). InGaAs covers to about 1.8 μm; the less sensitive lead salts cover this region. Cryogenically cooled MCT detectors can cover the region of 1.0–2.5 μm.
Mid-wave infrared: 3 to 5 μm (defined by the atmospheric window and covered by indium antimonide, InSb and mercury cadmium telluride, HgCdTe, and partially by lead selenide, PbSe).
Long-wave infrared: 8 to 12, or 7 to 14 μm (this is the atmospheric window covered by HgCdTe and microbolometers).
Very-long wave infrared (VLWIR) (12 to about 30 μm, covered by doped silicon).
Near-infrared is the region closest in wavelength to the radiation detectable by the human eye. mid- and far-infrared are progressively further from the visible spectrum. Other definitions follow different physical mechanisms (emission peaks, vs. bands, water absorption) and the newest follow technical reasons (the common silicon detectors are sensitive to about 1,050 nm, while InGaAs’s sensitivity starts around 950 nm and ends between 1,700 and 2,600 nm, depending on the specific configuration). No international standards for these specifications are currently available.
I’ll continue in part 6.
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