Human brain overview for biotech and artificial intelligence development (part 21)

Let’s continue going over the basic knowledge required for fully understanding the human brain—for advancing human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence. Let’s rock!

My plan is at You can support me by investing in Robocentric at Message me anytime if you’ve questions or concerns.

Oxygen is the chemical element (symbol O) with an atomic number of 8 and relative atomic mass of 15.9994. It is a colorless and odorless gas.

Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom. Symbol: Z

Relative atomic mass is the ratio of the average mass per atom of the naturally occurring form of an element to 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom. Symbol Ar; abbreviation RAM or r.a.m. For elements with several isotopes, the most stable isotope is treated as the representative.

Carbon-12 is The most abundant of the two stable isotopes of carbon, 126C, having six protons and six neutrons; it is the standard for atomic weight and is used to define the mole.

Atomic weight is a former term for the more specific relative atomic mass. Atomic weight is also a term used to represent the mean relative atomic mass of an element in nature, as distinct from the relative atomic mass of a single isotope.

Mole is in the International System of Units, the base unit of amount of substance; the amount of substance of a system which contains exactly 6.02214076×1023 elementary entities (atoms, ions, molecules, etc.). Symbol: mol. The number of atoms is known as Avogadro’s number.

Avogadro’s number, Avogadro constant, or Avogadro’s constant is the number of atoms present in 12 grams of isotopically pure carbon-12, being 6.02214076 × 1023. By definition, the number of elementary entities (atoms or molecules) comprising one mole of a given substance.

An isotope is any of two or more forms of an element where the atoms have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons within their nuclei. Thus, isotopes have the same atomic number but a different mass number.

Mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atomic nucleus. Symbol: A

Proton is a positively charged subatomic particle forming part of the nucleus of an atom and determining the atomic number of an element, composed of two up quarks and a down quark.

An up quark is A quark having a fractional electric charge of +2/3 and a mass of about 1.5 to 4 MeV. Symbol: u

A mass is the quantity of matter which a body contains, irrespective of its bulk or volume. It is one of four fundamental properties of matter. It is measured in kilograms in the SI system of measurement.

MeV is initialism of megaelectron volt, 106 eV

A megaelectron volt is one million electron volts, abbreviated as MeV.

An electron volt is a unit for measuring the energy of subatomic particles; the energy equal to that attained by an electron moving through a potential difference of one volt. Equivalent to 1.6022 x 10-19 joules.

A down quark is a quark having a fractional electric charge of -1/3 and a mass of about 4 to 8 MeV. Symbol: d

A neutron is a subatomic particle forming part of the nucleus of an atom and having no charge; it is a combination of an up quark and two down quarks.

Nucleus is the massive, positively charged central part of an atom, made up of protons and neutrons.

Hemoglobin is the iron-containing substance in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body; it consists of a protein (globulin), and haem (a porphyrin ring with an atom of iron at its centre).

A red blood cell is a type of cell in the blood of vertebrates that contains hemoglobin and transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues; an erythrocyte.

I’ll continue in part 22.

If you haven’t already, visit, and buy and read my book, titled The Future, to learn how I advance artificial intelligence, robotics, human immortality biotech, and mass-scale outer space humanity expansion tech.

If you would like to support what I do, make donations at

Allen Young

The transhumanistic Asian-American man who publicly promotes and advances AI, robotics, human body biotech, and mass-scale outer space tech.