Human brain overview for biotech and artificial intelligence development (part 22)

Let’s continue going over the basic knowledge required for fully understanding the human brain—for advancing human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence. Let’s rock!

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A globulin is any of a group of simple proteins, soluble in water only in the presence of salts, that are coagulated by heat; one of the two parts of haemoglobin.

A porphyrin is any of a class of heterocyclic compounds containing pyrrole rings arranged in a square or other similar shape; they are important in biochemistry in a form with a metal atom in the central cavity (hemoglobin with iron, chlorophyll with magnesium, etc.).

Heterocyclic means having atoms of two or more different elements in at least one of its rings. Heterocyclic also means having one or more atoms other than carbon in at least one of its rings.

Pyrrole is any of a class of aromatic heterocyclic compounds containing a ring of four carbon atoms and a nitrogen atom; especially the simplest one, C4H5N.

Chlorophyll is any of a group of green pigments that are found in the chloroplasts of plants and in other photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria.

Chloroplast is an organelle, found in the cells of green plants and in photosynthetic algae, where photosynthesis takes place, characterized by a high concentration of chlorophyll and two membranes.

Cyanobacterium is any of very many photosynthetic prokaryotic microorganisms, of phylum Cyanobacteria, once known as blue-green algae.

Prokaryotic means of or having the characteristics of prokaryotes, especially bacteria. Prokaryotic also means of cells, lacking a nucleus.

A prokaryote is an organism whose cell (or cells) are characterized by the absence of a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles.

A membrane in biology is a microscopic double layer of lipids and proteins forming the boundary of cells or organelles.

An organelle is a specialized structure found inside cells that carries out a specific life process (e.g. ribosomes, vacuoles).

A ribosome is a small organelle found in all cells; involved in the production of proteins by translating messenger RNA.

Cell is the basic unit of a living organism, consisting of a quantity of protoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane, which is able to synthesize proteins and replicate itself.

Protoplasm is the entire contents of a cell comprising the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It is a semi-fluid, transparent substance which is the living matter of plant and animal cells.

Cytoplasm is the contents of a cell except for the nucleus. It includes cytosol, organelles, vesicles, and the cytoskeleton.

Cytosol is the aqueous solution of a cell’s cytoplasm, consisting of water, organic molecules and inorganic ions.

Aqueous means consisting mostly of water.

Organic in biology means pertaining to or derived from living organisms. Organic in chemistry means relating to the compounds of carbon, relating to natural products.

Inorganic in chemistry means relating to a compound that does not contain carbon. Inorganic also means that does not originate in a living organism.

Compound in chemistry means a substance formed by chemical bonding of two or more elements in definite proportions by weight.

Substance is physical matter; material.

A vesicle in cytology means a membrane-bound compartment found in a cell. A vesicle in anatomy means a pocket of embryonic tissue that is the beginning of an organ.

Embryonic in embryology means of or relating to an embryo.

Embryology is the scientific study of embryos.

Embryo, in the reproductive cycle, is the stage after the fertilization of the egg that precedes the development into a fetus. In humans, embryo is usually the cell growth up to the end of the seventh week in the mother’s body.

A fetus is an unborn or unhatched vertebrate showing signs of the mature animal. A human fetus is a human embryo after the eighth week of gestation. The sequence is: molecules in reproductive systems, then gametes, zygotes, morulas, blastocysts, and then fetuses.

I’ll continue in part 23.

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Allen Young

The transhumanistic Asian-American man who publicly promotes and advances AI, robotics, human body biotech, and mass-scale outer space tech.