Let’s continue going over the basic knowledge required for developing one or more ultra-low cost biomolecule synthesis technologies—for advancing human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence. Let’s rock!
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To diffuse is to spread over or through as in air, water, or other matter, especially by fluid motion or passive means. To diffuse is to be spread over or through as in air, water, or other matter, especially by fluid motion or passive means.
Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that forms the main constituent of the cell wall in most plants and is important in the manufacture of numerous products, such as paper, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and explosives. Cellulose, in organic chemistry, is a polysaccharide containing many glucose units in parallel chains.
Cell wall, in cytology, is a thick, fairly rigid, layer formed around individual cells of bacteria, Archaea, fungi, plants, and algae (but not animals and other protists which generally have cell membranes without cell walls). The cell wall is external to the cell membrane and serves a structural function helping the cell maintain its shape and protecting the cell from damage.
Protist, in microbiology, is any of the eukaryotic unicellular organisms including protozoans, slime molds and some algae; historically grouped into the kingdom Protoctista.
Eukaryote, in cytology, is any of the single-celled or multicellular organisms of the taxonomic domain Eukaryota, whose cells contain at least one distinct nucleus.
Polysaccharide, in biochemistry, is a polymer made of many saccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Glycosidic means of or pertaining to a glycoside.
Glycoside, in organic chemistry and biochemistry, is a molecule in which a sugar group (the glycone) is bound to a non-sugar group (the corresponding aglycone) by a nitrogen or oxygen atom. Glycosides yield a sugar after undergoing hydrolysis.
Aglycone, in organic chemistry, is the non-sugar fragment of a glycoside.
Hydrolysis, in chemistry, is a chemical process of decomposition involving the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion of water.
Decomposition is a biological process through which organic material is reduced to e.g. compost.
The act of taking something apart, e.g. for analysis.
Cation, in physical chemistry, is a positively charged ion, i.e. one that would be attracted to the cathode in electrolysis.
Cathode, in electricity, is an electrode, of a cell or other electrically polarized device, through which a positive current of electricity flows outwards (and thus, electrons flow inwards). It usually, but not always, has a positive voltage. Cathode, in chemistry by extension, is the electrode at which chemical reduction of cations takes place, usually resulting in the deposition of metal onto the electrode.
Electrode is the terminal through which electric current passes between metallic and nonmetallic parts of an electric circuit. Electrode is a collector or emitter of electric charge in a semiconducting device.
Electrolysis, in chemistry, is the chemical change produced by passing an electric current through a conducting solution or a molten salt. Electrolysis is the destruction of hair roots by means of an electric current.
Hydroxide, in chemistry, is an univalent anion (OH-) based on the hydroxyl functional group.
Any substance containing such an anion.
Anion is a negatively charged ion.
Chain, in chemistry, is a number of atoms in a series, which combine to form a molecule.
Conformation, in chemistry, is the spatial arrangement of a group of atoms in a molecule as a result of rotation about a covalent bond which remains unbroken.
Disaccharide, in biochemistry, is any sugar, such as sucrose, maltose and lactose, consisting of two monosaccharides combined together.
Maltose, in biochemistry, is a disaccharide, C12H22O11 formed from the digestion of starch by amylase; is converted to glucose by maltase; it is an isomer of trehalose.
I’ll continue in part 6.
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