How to read chemical structure formula for biotech development (part 2)

Let’s continue learning how to read chemical structure formulas—for advancing human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence. Let’s rock!

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Positron, in physics, is the antimatter equivalent of an electron, having the same mass but a positive charge.

Optical activity, in physics, is a property caused by asymmetrical molecular or crystal structure that enables a compound or crystal to rotate the plane of incident polarized light. Optical activity, in chemistry, is a measure of the amount of optical rotation produced by a standard amount of a substance.

Crystal is a solid composed of an array of atoms or molecules possessing long-range order and arranged in a pattern which is periodic in three dimensions.

Long-range means operating, or capable of operating, over a great distance. Long-range means involving a great period of time.

Periodic means having repeated cycles. Periodic means occurring at regular intervals.

Plane is a level or flat surface. Plane, in geometry, is a flat surface extending infinitely in all directions (e.g. horizontal or vertical plane).

Incident, in physics, of a stream of particles or radiation, means falling on or striking a surface.

Polarized light, in physics, is light in which the electric and magnetic fields each vibrate in a single plane.

Optical rotation, in physics, is the rotation of the plane of polarization of plane polarized light as it passes through a chiral medium.

Polarization, in physics, is the production of polarized light; the direction in which the electric field of an electromagnetic wave points. Polarization, in chemistry and physics, is the separation of positive and negative charges in a nucleus, atom, molecule or system.

Electric field, in electricity and physics, is a region of space around a charged particle, or between two voltages, which exerts a force on charged objects in its vicinity.

Electromagnetic wave, in physics, is electromagnetic radiation, such as light and radio waves.

Electromagnetic radiation is radiation (quantized as photons) consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields oriented perpendicularly to each other, moving through space.

Plane polarized light, in physics, is polarized light in which the electric and magnetic fields vibrate in same phase.

Chiral means that exhibits chirality (as in the left-handed and right-handed versions of a helix).

Chirality is the phenomenon, in chemistry, physics and mathematics, in which objects are mirror images of each other, but are otherwise identical; handedness.

Helix, in mathematics, is a curve on the surface of a cylinder or cone such that its angle to a plane perpendicular to the axis is constant; the three-dimensional curve seen in a screw or a spiral staircase. Helix, in anatomy, is the incurved rim of the external ear.

Diastereoisomer, in chemistry, is a stereoisomer having multiple chiral centres; a diastereoisomer cannot normally be superimposed on the mirror image of another.

Stereoisomer, in chemistry, is one of a set of the isomers of a compound that exhibits stereoisomerism.

Stereoisomerism, in chemistry, is a form of isomerism in which atoms are arranged differently about a chiral centre (or centre of asymmetry). They exhibit optical activity, and in a molecule with a single chiral centre the two isomers (enantiomers) are mirror images of each other whereas in a molecule with multiple chiral centres the isomers (diastereoisomers) are not normally mirror images.

Asymmetry is absence of symmetry or proportion between the parts of a thing, or a distinction that produces such a lack of symmetry. Asymmetry is the lack of a common measure between two objects or quantities; incommensurability.

Mirror image is an image that is reversed from left to right, as it would appear if seen in a mirror; a reflection.

I’ll continue in part 3.

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