Humanity advances | How to read chemical structure formula for biotech development (part 3)

Let’s continue learning how to read chemical structure formulas—for advancing human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence.

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To superimpose is to place an object over another object, usually in such a way that both will be visible.

Chiral center, in chemistry, is a stereocenter.

Stereocenter, in chemistry, is any atom in a molecule such that the interchange of two of its substituent groups leads to the formation of a stereoisomer.

Now, back to what it says in Wikipedia on chemical structural formula.

Several systematic chemical naming formats, as in chemical databases, are used that are equivalent to, and as powerful as, geometric structures. These chemical nomenclature systems include SMILES, InChI and CML. These systematic chemical names can be converted to structural formulas and vice versa, but chemists nearly always describe a chemical reaction or synthesis using structural formulas rather than chemical names, because the structural formulas allow the chemist to visualize the molecules and the structural changes that occur in them during chemical reactions.

A chemical database is a database specifically designed to store chemical information. This information is about chemical and crystal structures, spectra, reactions and syntheses, and thermophysical data.

A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

In chemistry, a systematic name describes the chemical structure of a chemical substance, thus giving some information about its chemical properties.

The simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) is a specification in the form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called OpenSMILES was developed in the open-source chemistry community.

Line notation is a typographical notation system using ASCII characters, most often used for chemical nomenclature.

A molecule editor is a computer program for creating and modifying representations of chemical structures.

A chemical structure determination includes a chemist’s specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid. Molecular geometry refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together, and can be represented using structural formulae and by molecular models; complete electronic structure descriptions include specifying the occupation of a molecule’s molecular orbitals. Structure determination can be applied to a range of targets from very simple molecules (e.g., diatomic oxygen or nitrogen), to very complex ones (e.g., such as protein or DNA).

An open standard is a standard that is openly accessible and usable by anyone.

The International Chemical Identifier (InChI) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web.

Chemical Markup Language (ChemML or CML) is an approach to managing molecular information using tools such as XML and Java.

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

As a topic of chemistry, chemical synthesis (or combination) is the artificial execution of chemical reactions to obtain one or several products.

I’ll look into the chemical nomenclature systems SMILES, InChI and CML.

I’ll look into the software programs for drawing reactions and structural formulas, such as ChemSketch and ChemDraw.

Moreover, eventually, I will develop and commercialize a computational modeler biotechnology for drawing on computer and publishing all the biochemical reactions in the human body and their structural formulas—for advancing human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence.

I’ll continue in part 4.

If you haven’t already, visit, and buy and read my book, titled The Future, to learn how I advance artificial intelligence, robotics, human immortality biotech, and mass-scale outer space humanity expansion tech.

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Allen Young

The transhumanistic Asian-American man who publicly promotes and advances AI, robotics, human body biotech, and mass-scale outer space tech.