Human reality changes | Human brain study for biotech, artificial intelligence (part 2)

Let’s continue the human brain study required for fully understanding the human brain—for advancing human immortality biotech, neurotech, and artificial intelligence.

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Functionally, the human cerebellum plays an important role in motor control. It may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language as well as emotional control such as regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. The human cerebellum does not initiate movement, but contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing: it receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, and integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. Cerebellar damage produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium, posture, and motor learning in humans. In addition to its direct role in motor control, the cerebellum is necessary for several types of motor learning, most notably learning to adjust to changes in sensorimotor relationships.

A number of nerves transport or carry sensory information into the human brain.

The optic nerve, also known as the second cranial nerve, cranial nerve II, or simply CN II, is a paired cranial nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.

The vestibulocochlear nerve or auditory vestibular nerve, also known as the eighth cranial nerve, cranial nerve VIII, or simply CN VIII, is a cranial nerve that transmits sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain.

The olfactory nerve, also known as the first cranial nerve, cranial nerve I, or simply CN I, is a cranial nerve that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to the sense of smell.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve, cranial nerve IX, or simply CN IX, is a cranial nerve that exits the brainstem from the sides of the upper medulla, just anterior (closer to the nose) to the vagus nerve. Being a mixed nerve (sensorimotor), it carries afferent sensory and efferent motor information. The motor division of the glossopharyngeal nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic medulla oblongata, whereas the sensory division originates from the cranial neural crest. The glossopharyngeal nerve has five distinct general functions, one of them being providing taste sensation from the posterior one-third of the tongue, including circumvallate papillae.

Afferent means carrying towards.

Efferent means carrying away from, or carried outward.

The vagus nerve, also known as the tenth cranial nerve, cranial nerve X, or simply CN X, is a cranial nerve that interfaces with the parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. It comprises two nerves—the left and right vagus nerves—but they are typically referred to collectively as a single subsystem. The vagus is the longest nerve of the autonomic nervous system in the human body and comprises both sensory and motor fibers. The sensory fibers originate from neurons of the nodose ganglion, whereas the motor fibers come from neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the nucleus ambiguus. The vagus was also historically called the pneumogastric nerve.

The vagus nerve includes axons which emerge from or converge onto four nuclei of the medulla, including the solitary nucleus – which receives afferent taste information and primary afferents from visceral organs.

The primary gustatory cortex is a brain structure responsible for the perception of taste. It consists of two substructures: the anterior insula on the insular lobe and the frontal operculum on the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe.

Cranial nerve 0 is terminal nerve; cranial nerve I is for smell; cranial nerve II is for vision; cranial nerve III, IV, VI are for eye movement; cranial nerve V is trigeminal nerve; cranial nerve VII is for facial expression; cranial nerve VIII is for hearing and balance; cranial nerve IX is for oral sensation, taste, and salivation; cranial nerve X is vagus nerve; cranial nerve XI is for shoulder elevation and head-turning; cranial nerve XII is for tongue movement.

I’ll continue in part 3.

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Allen Young

The transhumanistic Asian-American man who publicly promotes and advances AI, robotics, human body biotech, and mass-scale outer space tech.